Barbizon School of Painting (part 6)
The Russian critic V.V. Stasov appreciated the Barbizonians because “they did not decorate or sweeten, but conveyed the true forms of nature, the nature of Russian, French, and at the…

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Antique Cologne (part 3)
But the height of perfection is the glass produced in Cologne. It is impossible to pass by glass vessels with handles in the form of the Greek letter "omega", depicting…

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Olympia - the sanctuary of Hellas (part 2)
The ancient Greeks erected the origin of the Olympic Games to mythological times, the honor of their approval was attributed to both Zeus himself and Heracles. But these are just…

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Indian art products

The creation of artistically designed household items is one of the oldest forms of art in India. Its effect is powerful, because it brings a huge aesthetic joy to a person, ennobles taste. Applied art enjoyed the deep love of the people. Tools, household items, military equipment and a religious cult were richly and inventively adorned. The manufacturers were numerous castes of artisans.

Thus, the artistic decoration of manuscript books became especially skillful in the 16th – 17th centuries. It required the subtlest skill of calligraphers, miniaturists, gilders and decorators-bookbinders. Each manuscript is the result of the work of dozens of craftsmen. Such books were collected in palace libraries, to which only wealthy people had access.A variety of materials were used for the manufacture of art products: wood and nutshells, clay, metals, ornamental stone (for example, marble), semiprecious and precious, pearls, corals, shells, bone (especially ivory), horn, tortoiseshell, cotton, wool , goat fluff, plant fiber, silk, leather – in a word, almost everything that rich Indian nature gave. Dyes of fabrics (in particular, indigo) have become famous for their durability and beauty of shades all over the world, and the famous Indian damask steel has no equal. In the colonial era, some types of artistic crafts disappeared and were revived only after the country achieved independence in 1947.

In ancient and medieval India, almost every family engaged in spinning and weaving. The most widely used were embroideries, heels, carpets, and a wide variety of fabrics were made. India was the first in the world to cultivate cotton. The finest fabrics from it were valued even in ancient Babylon, Rome. They received figurative names: “woven air”, “flowing water”, “evening dew”, as they became almost invisible in water or on dewy grass.

The fabrics were decorated with embroidery, painting, printing patterns (print patterns with carved wooden stamps) and in other ways. The use of stamps by hand and the placement of the details of the drawing on the eye created a picturesque game of color and lines, which made every thing truly artistic, devoid of dry and deadening precision of the machine stencil. Sometimes scenes of a wedding train with a bride riding in a cart on bulls, accompanied by musicians and other participants in the festival, were depicted on blankets or curtains. All figures are graceful, flexible, poses and gestures truthfully conveyed.

In the 19th century, fame spread throughout the world about the thin woolen shawls of Kashmir. The threads for them were hidden from goat fluff and with the help of small shuttles interwoven with warp threads strung on vertical looms. For each color, a separate weft thread and its own shuttle were taken. The most complex multi-figure scenes were transmitted with such skill that a painter could envy this! Kashmiri shawls were so thin that they passed through the ring.

Venice School of Painting (part 3)
Carpaccio is related by poetic mood to the greatest of the Venetian painters of the 15th century - Giovanni Bellini, the youngest son of Jacopo. But his artistic interests lay…

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Brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites (part 3)
The first works with the mysterious monogram "PRB" appeared at exhibitions only in 1849. These were Lorenzo and Isabella by Milles, The Virginity of Mary by Rossetti, and Rienzi Hunt.…

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Syrian landscapes (part 3)
The main advantage of the work lies in color harmony, lighting features, characteristic of the second half of the day, when the sun from the zenith begins to decline. The…

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How did the masters of the Italian Renaissance study (part 3)
As another example, let us trace how the creative personality of Michelangelo was formed. For thirteen years he entered the studio of the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. At age 15, he…

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