How did the masters of the Italian Renaissance study (part 2)
Here is a quote from a book by Giovio, an Italian historian of the 16th century. He describes the teaching method of Leonardo da Vinci, which gives us an idea…

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Coroplasts from Tanagra (part 3)
The movements of the Tanagryanoks are beautiful and measured, their gestures are restrained, and the expression on their faces is noble. Here is a woman, raising her raincoat, wants to…

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Mexican painting of the first half of the XX century (part 2)
The start of the Mexican schedule itself was laid by the largest engraver of the XIX century - Jose Guadalupe Posada. He worked as an artist in newspapers, first in…

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Indian art products

The creation of artistically designed household items is one of the oldest forms of art in India. Its effect is powerful, because it brings a huge aesthetic joy to a person, ennobles taste. Applied art enjoyed the deep love of the people. Tools, household items, military equipment and a religious cult were richly and inventively adorned. The manufacturers were numerous castes of artisans.

Thus, the artistic decoration of manuscript books became especially skillful in the 16th – 17th centuries. It required the subtlest skill of calligraphers, miniaturists, gilders and decorators-bookbinders. Each manuscript is the result of the work of dozens of craftsmen. Such books were collected in palace libraries, to which only wealthy people had access.A variety of materials were used for the manufacture of art products: wood and nutshells, clay, metals, ornamental stone (for example, marble), semiprecious and precious, pearls, corals, shells, bone (especially ivory), horn, tortoiseshell, cotton, wool , goat fluff, plant fiber, silk, leather – in a word, almost everything that rich Indian nature gave. Dyes of fabrics (in particular, indigo) have become famous for their durability and beauty of shades all over the world, and the famous Indian damask steel has no equal. In the colonial era, some types of artistic crafts disappeared and were revived only after the country achieved independence in 1947.

In ancient and medieval India, almost every family engaged in spinning and weaving. The most widely used were embroideries, heels, carpets, and a wide variety of fabrics were made. India was the first in the world to cultivate cotton. The finest fabrics from it were valued even in ancient Babylon, Rome. They received figurative names: “woven air”, “flowing water”, “evening dew”, as they became almost invisible in water or on dewy grass.

The fabrics were decorated with embroidery, painting, printing patterns (print patterns with carved wooden stamps) and in other ways. The use of stamps by hand and the placement of the details of the drawing on the eye created a picturesque game of color and lines, which made every thing truly artistic, devoid of dry and deadening precision of the machine stencil. Sometimes scenes of a wedding train with a bride riding in a cart on bulls, accompanied by musicians and other participants in the festival, were depicted on blankets or curtains. All figures are graceful, flexible, poses and gestures truthfully conveyed.

In the 19th century, fame spread throughout the world about the thin woolen shawls of Kashmir. The threads for them were hidden from goat fluff and with the help of small shuttles interwoven with warp threads strung on vertical looms. For each color, a separate weft thread and its own shuttle were taken. The most complex multi-figure scenes were transmitted with such skill that a painter could envy this! Kashmiri shawls were so thin that they passed through the ring.

Barbizon School of Painting (part 1)
Far from the noise of the capital, French painters of the last century took a fancy to the area around the royal residence of Fontainebleau, which, since the time of…

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Antique Cologne (part 1)
Cologne ... Many have heard of this German city on the Rhine, a major center of medieval European culture. Well-known Cologne Cathedral - an unsurpassed monument of Gothic architecture. His…

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Turkmen folk costume (part 1)
If you come to Turkmenistan, then surely pay attention to women's clothing, which has preserved the national identity of the folk costume. In our time, marked by great successes in…

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Brotherhood of the Pre-Raphaelites (part 6)
The fate of this talented - and still underrated artist - has been difficult. He was a little older than the Pre-Raphaelites, but by the time he became friends with…

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