Turkmen folk costume (part 2)
Apparently, the patterns covering the collar, sleeves and hem of the dressing gowns and shirts are also associated with these ideas. For certain areas and tribal groups, special ornaments and colors are characteristic. Embroidery is a traditionally female occupation, which began to teach girls from 8-10 years old. Turkmen craftswomen owned several types of seams, embroidered with colored silk threads of various thicknesses.
The Turkmen national costume cannot be imagined without jewelry, which once served as a kind of amulets protecting from diseases and infertility. If you take a closer look, you can see stylized images of animals and insects in jewelry, which used to be associated in the representation of people with the elements of nature. Already in three or four years old, the girl was put on bracelets and sewed on mother-of-pearl buttons and beads. With age, the number of jewelry increased.
Of particular interest is a small silver dome – “cups” – on a girl’s hat. From the edges of this dome silver plates scatter across the skullcap, ending with a fringe of pendants. Such a headdress with a sultan of feathers at the top resembles a small combat helmet. Girlish (tahya) and female (borik) hats complement many plates, pendants, hairpins, amulets, covering whiskey, the back of the head, protecting the neck, chest and shoulders. In a Turkmen folk song it is sung: “When the geese … rise into the sky, then all the air is filled with their voices, when the girls go for water, then all the air is filled with the ring of their ornaments.”
The quantity and nature of the jewelry depended in many respects on the property status. In solemn occasions, a woman from a wealthy family put on six to eight kilograms of jewelry.
The craftsmen engaged in jewelry craft, forging beautiful gizmos for women’s dresses along with weapons. And of course, in contrast to the carpet weaving that women were involved in, jewelry was an exclusively male affair. The gunsmiths and jewelers enjoyed great respect among the people. It is known that the main occupation of the great Turkmen poet of the 18th century Makhtumkuli was jewelry and weapons craft.
For jewelry, silver was most often used with inserts made of natural stones: carnelian, which according to ancient beliefs brings peace, joy and abundance, turquoise, which improves eyesight, coral, giving wealth and abundance of all fruits. The surface of the product was covered with a geometric and plant engraved pattern. Different tribal elements are characterized by various ornamental elements, but proportionality, laconicism, and massiveness are characteristic of all Turkmen jewelry.
In the national costume and jewelry, aesthetic representations of the Turkmen people were expressed with its ancient art culture, rooted back centuries.