Antique Cologne (part 1)
Cologne ... Many have heard of this German city on the Rhine, a major center of medieval European culture. Well-known Cologne Cathedral - an unsurpassed monument of Gothic architecture. His…

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Olympia - the sanctuary of Hellas (part 3)
The sculptor shows the moment before the start of the competition. Heroes are presented before the main events unfold. In each image, the outcome of this drama is read. Researchers…

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Turkmen folk costume (part 2)
Apparently, the patterns covering the collar, sleeves and hem of the dressing gowns and shirts are also associated with these ideas. For certain areas and tribal groups, special ornaments and…

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Barbizon School of Painting (part 3)

The heirs of the Enlightenment, they, like J.-J. Rousseau, saw in nature a moral principle and contrasted the village with “modern Babylon” – Paris. Rousseau and Dupre believed that nature has a noble effect on the human person. The precepts of romanticism, which proclaimed the cult of “pure” nature, full of strength, greatness, also meant a lot to them. Artists hated bourgeois civilization, enslaving man. “What a devil, this modern civilization! Let’s go back to nature, forests and ancient poetry! ”- Rousseau called. He said: “Society makes us lose the health of our body and spirit. And the soul is like a forest upon which civilizers encroach. They cut down the high trunks of our thoughts, break the proud cliffs of our desires. May nature be the last refuge of our spirit! ”

The Barbizonians believed that real, serious art could be created in patriarchal silence, as was the case with the Lenin brothers in the 17th century, whose work was then resurrected by the critic Chanfleury, who ardently supported realism. An example for them was not only the old Dutch masters who penetrated the corners of their land, but also the English painter D. Constable, whose works were shown in 1824 in Paris. He was in love with the world of rural silence, where nature and people live in good harmony, he spiritually conveyed the appearance of his native land, revealing the richness of reflexes on the greenery of trees, and the air filled with moisture.

The Barbizonians opposed the traditions of classicism, strong enough at the beginning of the 19th century, and rejected the conventions of the composed “historical” landscape. Masters went to the truth in art, finding simple, expressive means for its expression. They did not aspire to Rome to create “in the shadow of Poussin and Lorrain,” they loved their land, found in it an abyss of poetry. Their view of nature was such that the main disadvantage was simple, expressive means. They did not aspire to Rome to create “in the shadow of Poussin and Lorrain,” they loved their land, found in it an abyss of poetry. Their view of nature was such that the main ill-wishers of the Barbizonians, Newver Kirk, who hated realism, called their work “the art of the democrats,” of which he was undoubtedly right. The Barbizonians saw nature unvarnished, as it is. Foes critics called artists “cattle breeders”, “Raphaels of sheep herds.” But Daubigny, as if in response to reproaches, said that he would like to depict the view in such a way, when “a pile of manure does not look out of place.”

Venice School of Painting (part 4)
The art of Giorgione was a real revolution in Venetian painting, had a huge impact on contemporaries, including Titian, whose work the readers of the magazine already had the opportunity…

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Barbizon School of Painting (part 5)
The views of the Barbizonians are many contradictory. Striving for a truthful depiction of nature, they, paradoxically, were negative towards realism, considering it too prosaic, aimed at creating "copies", and…

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Antique Cologne (part 4)
In Cologne, stone tombs of Roman legionnaires were also found. There were quarries designed specifically for their manufacture. The setting of tombstones was a sign of the welfare of the…

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Barbizon School of Painting (part 2)
They were T. Russo, D. de la Peña, J. Dupree, F. Millet. It was they who most often could be found here with a notebook and an easel, which, incidentally,…

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